Burial sites of Paleolithic people from this time period have been excavated by archaeologists.
In Jericho dead people were buried under the floor without their skulls, which were restored as part of a burial ritual.
People lived in settlements and cities, including Catal Huyulk in Anatolia in Turkey and Khirokitia in Cyprus, where cemeteries have been excavated.
In Egypt dead bodies were buried in the sand of the desert, where they would be preserved for thousands of years.
Earliest known attempts to artificially create mummies in Egypt.
Adena and Hopewell people began building burial mounds in what is now the Ohio Valley.
Greeks began cremating their dead.
Romans adopted cremation. (Later, Romans in the Republic were buried, but the Emperor Augustus changed the system back to cremation because he feared the effects on health from the overcrowded common burial pits.)
An elaborate tomb was built for King Mausolus at Halicamassus in Caria. Called one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the word mausoleum is derived from his tomb.
Mummification became universal in Egypt.
Sarcophagi, or stone tombs, were first constructed.
Coffins were first used in Sumer and Egypt.
To determine the cause of Julius Caesar's death, the Roman physician Antistius performed one of the earliest recorded forensic examinations. He concluded that only one of the twenty-three stab wounds on Caesar's body was fatal-the one to his chest.
Early Christians began using catacombs on the outskirts of Rome.
Catacombs all but forgotten.
1247 , :
Hsi YUan Ch'i Lu (The Washing Away of Unjust Wrongs), a Chinese
handbook on autopsies, was published.
Ossuary at Kutna Hora in the Czech Republic was built.
Catacombs rediscovered in Rome.
Empress Mumtaz Mahal died after requesting that her husband not remarry and that he build her the most magnificent tomb the world had seen. Some twenty years later the Taj Mahal was completed.
Ancient Funerall Monuments published by John Weever, first work in English on epitaphs.
The term undertaker was now in use.
The earliest record of an undertaker in the Thirteen Colonies: Blanch White, who set up a New York City business that combined upholstering and undertaking. Her advertisement: “All kinds of Field Equipage, Drums, Etc. Funerals furnishe'd with all things necessary and proper Attendance as in England."
Pere Lachaise, the first "garden" or "rural" cemetery, opened in Paris.
Mount Auburn Cemetery opened in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the "garden' or "rural" cemetery movement began in the United States.
First large military cemetery was established in the United States.
First serious experiments in modern cremation technique were carried out in Italy.
The Undertaker, the first textbook devoted to embalming in the United States, was published.
The term funeral director coined in the United States.
In California, Hubert Eaton began to create Forest Lawn as a memorial park.
The 22nd World Medical Assembly published standards for diagnosing death by brain criteria. .
In the United States guidelines for determining death were proposed in the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which has become law in many states.
Many graves in a cemetery in Hardin, Missouri, were washed away when the Missouri River flooded in the summer. It cost $500,000 to retrieve and identify corpses. However, 127 corpses were never recovered, and 470 remain unidentified.
The mummified body of a five- thousand-year-old Inca girl was discovered entombed in the ice on Mount Ampato, near Arequipa, Peru.
A rocket with the cremated remains of twenty-four people was launched into outer space.